Fossil dating methods archaeology
The basis of cross-dating is the occurrence of finds in association.
The assumption is that a particular type of artifact, for example a type of sword, when found in an undated context will bear a similar date to one found in a dated context, thus enabling the whole of the undated context to be given a chronological value.
The method is based on the assumption that typologies evolved at the same rate and in the same way over a wide area or alternatively on assumptions of diffusion.
Many of the chronologies constructed before the advent of showed some of the links established by cross-dating to be invalid, so the method has become somewhat discredited.
He was the son of SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: index fossil concept; index species CATEGORY: artifact; technique DEFINITION: A fossil with widespread geographical range but which is restricted in time to a brief existence.
In archaeology, it is a theory that proposes that strata containing similar fossil assemblages will tend to be of similar age.
If in culture A an object produced by culture B is found, A must be contemporary with, or later than, B.
The term cross-dating ought strictly to be used only when an object of culture A is also found in proved association with culture B, when overlap of at least part of the time span of each is proved.
When two or more objects are found together and it can be proved that they were deposited together, they are said to be in genuine or CATEGORY: chronology; technique DEFINITION: Any method used to order time and to place events in the sequence in which they occurred.
A sequential ordering that places cultural entities in temporal, and often spatial, distribution.
It involves the collection of dates or successive datings establishing the position in time of a series of phenomena such as the phases of a civilization or the events of the history of a state.
, in which figures in solar years (often with some necessary margin of error) can be applied to a particular event.
Unless tied to historical records, dating by archaeological methods can only be relative -- such as stratigraphy, typology, , fluorine and nitrogen test, and radiometric assay.