Fossil dating methods archaeology

The basis of cross-dating is the occurrence of finds in association.

The assumption is that a particular type of artifact, for example a type of sword, when found in an undated context will bear a similar date to one found in a dated context, thus enabling the whole of the undated context to be given a chronological value.

The method is based on the assumption that typologies evolved at the same rate and in the same way over a wide area or alternatively on assumptions of diffusion.

Many of the chronologies constructed before the advent of showed some of the links established by cross-dating to be invalid, so the method has become somewhat discredited.

He was the son of SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: index fossil concept; index species CATEGORY: artifact; technique DEFINITION: A fossil with widespread geographical range but which is restricted in time to a brief existence.

In archaeology, it is a theory that proposes that strata containing similar fossil assemblages will tend to be of similar age.

If in culture A an object produced by culture B is found, A must be contemporary with, or later than, B.

The term cross-dating ought strictly to be used only when an object of culture A is also found in proved association with culture B, when overlap of at least part of the time span of each is proved.

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When two or more objects are found together and it can be proved that they were deposited together, they are said to be in genuine or CATEGORY: chronology; technique DEFINITION: Any method used to order time and to place events in the sequence in which they occurred.

A sequential ordering that places cultural entities in temporal, and often spatial, distribution.

It involves the collection of dates or successive datings establishing the position in time of a series of phenomena such as the phases of a civilization or the events of the history of a state.

, in which figures in solar years (often with some necessary margin of error) can be applied to a particular event.

Unless tied to historical records, dating by archaeological methods can only be relative -- such as stratigraphy, typology, , fluorine and nitrogen test, and radiometric assay.

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